Wall Chart Citations

A Quick Trip to 7 Billion (Timeline side)

Historical items noting dates of events, inventions, discoveries and publications are found in a wide variety of sources. Below are the sources for statistical data noted on the timeline.

Years of world population milestones (1-7 billion): United Nations Population Division.

U.S. Population statistics (1820s, 1915, 1967, 2006): U.S. Bureau of the Census.

Life Expectancy (1804, 1927, 1960, 1974, 1987, 1999, 2011): World Development Indicators, World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables), (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database. Bourguignon, F. and C. Morrisson (2002). Inequality among world citizens 1820-1992. American Economic Review, pp. 727-744; James C. Riley, Rising Life Expectancy: A Global History, Cambridge University Press, 2002; James C. Riley, “Estimates of Regional and Global Life Expectancy, 1800-2001,” Population and Development Review, Vol. 31, No. 3 (Sept., 2005), pp. 537-543.

Urbanization (1804, 1927, 1960, 1974, 1987, 1999, 2011): United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects; Population Reference Bureau.

Literacy (1927, 1960, 1974, 1987, 1999, 2011): UNESCO; World Bank: Lost Decades Social Indicators; Bourguignon F. and C. Morrison (2002). Inequality among world citizens 1820-1992. American Economic Review, pp. 727-744.

Total Fertility Rate (1960, 1974, 1987, 1999, 2011): United Nations Population Division.

Number of national parks (1872): International Union of Conservation of Nature.

Number of “test tube babies” born (1978): International Committee for Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ICMART).

Collapse of codfish stock (1992): Millenium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005, Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis, World Resources Institute.

Where Do We Grow From Here? (Charts/Graphs side)

State of the Global Family: Then and Now (table)

Population size, growth rate, life expectancy and total fertility rate: United Nations Population Division.

Urban Population:United Nations Population Division; Population Reference Bureau.

Median Age: Human Development Indicators (United Nations Population Division; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs).

Child Mortality: Level & Trends in Child Mortality Report 2010. Estimates Developed by the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UNICEF, WHO, World Bank, UN DESA, UNPD).

Average years of school: Robert J. Barro and Jong-Wha Lee, “A New Data Set of Educational Attainment in the World, 1950-2010,” Working Paper No. 15902, April 2010, National Bureau of Economic Research.

Women in Parliaments: United Nations, Women’s Indicators and Statistical Database.

CO2 Emissions: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oakridge National Laboratory.

Atmospheric Concentration of CO2: Earth Policy Institute, compiled from data from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

Paper consumption, meat consumption and fish catch: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations.

World fertilizer use: Earth Policy Institute, compiled from data from Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the International Fertilizer Industry Association.

Chronic Water Shortage: Kummu, M., and Ward, P.J., de Moel, H. and Varis. O (2010), “Is physical water scarcity a new phenomenon? Global assessment of water shortage over the last two millennia.” Environmental Research Letters.

Number of passenger cars: Earth Policy Institute, compiled from data from Ward’s Automotive Group for 2000-2009; The Economist; Automobile Manufacturers Association.

Ecological Footprint: Global Footprint Network; World Wildlife Fund.

TVs, Internet Users and Cell phone subscriptions: International Telecommunications Union (ITU), a United Nations agency.

A Demographic Tale of Three Countries

Life expectancy, total fertility rate: United Nations Population Division

Median Age: Human Development Indicators (United Nations Population Division; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs).

Average years of school: Robert J. Barro and Jong-Wha Lee, “A New Data Set of Educational Attainment in the World, 1950-2010,” Working Paper No. 15902, April 2010, National Bureau of Economic Research.

Access to improved water and sanitation facilities: World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF).

Access to electricity: International Energy Agency, World Energy Outlook 2010.

Child Mortality: Level & Trends in Child Mortality. Report 2010. Estimates Developed by the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UNICEF, WHO, World Bank, UN DESA, UNPD).

Contraceptive use: Demographic and Health Surveys by Macro International and Multiple Cluster Surveys by UNICEF.

Data Sources for Graphs:

World Population Projections: United Nations, World Population Prospects, 2010 Revision.

Number of Undernourished People in the World: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations.

Population Under Water Shortage: Matti Kummu, Water and Development Research Group, Aalto University, Finland; environmentalresearchweb.org.

Population and CO2 Emissions: Carbon Dioxide Analysis Center, Oakridge National Laboratory; Population Reference Bureau.

Energy Use Uneven Across the Globe: International Energy Agency.

Meat Consumption: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations.

Paper/Paperboard Consumption: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations.

Number of Ocean “Dead Zones”: Robert J. Diaz and Rutger Rosenberg, “Spreading Dead Zones and Consequences for Marine Ecosystems, Science Magazine, 15 August 2008, Vol. 321, No. 5891 pp. 926-929.

Caribbean Coral Reefs: Convention on Biological Diversity; World Resources Institute, Reefs at Risk Revisited, 2011.

Extent of Tropical Rainforest: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations.

Women’s Education and Fertility: Robert J. Barro and Jong-Wha Lee, “A New Data Set of Educational Attainment in the World, 1950-2010,” Working Paper No. 15902, April 2010, National Bureau of Economic Research; Population Reference Bureau.

Improving Child Heath in Low Income Countries: World Health Organization (WHO).

Ecological Footprint: Global Footprint Network; World Wildlife Fund.